In India, which has historically had a primarily agrarian economy, the services sector recently overtook the farm sector in terms of GDP contribution. South West Monsoon in Kerala : Southwest monsoon is the main rainy season in Kerala. The main types are the polar jets, the subtropical westerly jets, and the less common tropical easterly jets. Also known as the thermal theory or the differential heating of sea and land theory, the traditional theory portrays the monsoon as a large-scale sea breeze. Therefore, the agricultural calendar of India is governed by the monsoon. Two factors are essential for rain formation: Additionally, one of the causes of rain must happen. Kerala was also flooded in 2018 and 2019 . This causes the flow of moisture-laden winds from sea to land. Several theories have been proposed to explain the origin, process, strength, variability, distribution, and general vagaries of the monsoon, but understanding and predictability are still evolving. [41] At least five prediction models exist. The temperatures range from a maximum of 29 to 23 degrees centigrade. [11], Monsoons typically occur in tropical areas. Theories of the mechanism of the monsoon primarily try to explain the reasons for the seasonal reversal of winds and the timing of their reversal. The unique geographical features of the Indian subcontinent, along with associated atmospheric, oceanic, and geophysical factors, influence the behavior of the monsoon. [5] The state is reeling under damage to property worth Rs 19,000 crore, death of people, livestock and heavy loss to agriculture, especially in Kuttanad, Alappuzha, also known as ‘Kerala’s Rice Bowl’ and the state has submitted a comprehensive plan to Central government to improve the disaster management capacity of the state. This results in the north-to-south flow of the winds in the form of the northeast monsoon. As part of humanitarian response from NGO's - IAG Kerala, RedR India and Sphere India conveyed a meeting on Palakkad for the preparedness and response plan with respect to the ongoing heavy rainfall situation and all districts Inter Agency Group (IAGs) are activated in the State on August 8th. In the recent past, rainfall variability in short time periods (about a week) were attributed to desert dust over the Arabian Sea and Western Asia. Change of direction or origin of winds alters their nomenclature as noted above. Despite decreased rains, light to moderate rain with one or two heavy spells will continue during the next few days over Coastal Karnataka and Kerala. In some years, the rain quantity is sufficient but its timing arbitrary. The monsoon of western Sub-Saharan Africa is the result of the seasonal shifts of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the great seasonal temperature and humidity differences between the Sahara and the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The primary cause is believed to be the height of the Himalayas. Though the normal rainfall for Kerala for the entire month of August is only 427mm, the state received 476mm in the first ten days of August itself.[7]. No need to register, buy now! Bursting of monsoon refers to the sudden change in weather conditions in India (typically from hot and dry weather to wet and humid weather during the southwest monsoon), characterized by an abrupt rise in the mean daily rainfall. Though the mean position of the ITCZ is taken as the equator, it shifts north and south with the migration of the vertical sun toward the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn during the summer of the respective hemispheres (Northern and Southern Hemisphere). [29] However, it was later discovered that, just like ENSO in the Pacific Ocean, a similar seesaw ocean-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean was also in play. Terminologies and Glossary - Monsoon", "Climate glossary - Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)", "Extremes of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, ENSO and equatorial Indian Ocean oscillation", "Drying of Indian subcontinent by rapid Indian Ocean warming and a weakening land-sea thermal gradient", "The Curious Case of Indian Ocean Warming", "Warming Indian Ocean, weakening monsoon", "Weakening of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall due to Changes in Land Use Land Cover", "A threefold rise in widespread extreme rain events over central India", "Seasonal prediction of the Indian monsoon", "Seasonal Prediction of Indian Monsoon(SPIM)", "IMD's new operational models for long-range forecast of southwest monsoon rainfall over India and their verification for 2003", "Man behind old monsoon model goes out quietly", "India needs indigenous monsoon model for better prediction, says IMD chief", "Cherrapunji no longer wettest Challenge comes from nearby village", "Monsoon affects economy, health in India", https://www.medanta.org/patient-education-blog/monsoon-illnesses-in-india-all-you-need-to-know, Indian Meteorological Department Official Website, Monsoon On-Line, an Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India initiative, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monsoon_of_South_Asia&oldid=999073707, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The presence of abundant water bodies around the subcontinent: the, The presence of abundant highlands like the. On 8 August 2019, due to heavy rainfall in the Monsoon season, severe flood affected Kerala. In Kerala , people enjoy a very moderate climate. [29] Further, the two poles of the IOD – the eastern pole (around Indonesia) and the western pole (off the African coast) — independently and cumulatively affect the quantity of monsoon rains. Meanwhile, Monsoon rains may reduce marginally over Kerala and adjoining South Karnataka. The ITCZ migrates northward from the equatorial Atlantic in February, reaches western Africa on or near June 22, then moves back to the south by October. There have been books written and films made which showcase the beauty of the state during the season. Meanwhile, there has been a three-fold rise in widespread extreme rainfall events during the years 1950 to 2015, over the entire central belt of India, leading to a steady rise in the number of flash floods with significant socioeconomic losses. If the shift is delayed, so is the southwest monsoon. However, invariably Monsoon arrives over the state before or after its normal onset date. The floods resulted in the death of at least 22 people. [citation needed], Seasonal Prediction of Indian Monsoon (SPIM), The name of the wind is based on the direction that it blows, First, the Himalayas serve as orographic barriers to the southwest monsoon winds. [34] This is primarily due to a weakening monsoon circulation as a result of the rapid warming in the Indian Ocean,[35][36] and changes in land use and land cover,[37] while the role of aerosols remain elusive. A strong easterly tropical jet results in a strong southwest monsoon over central India, and a weak jet results in a weak monsoon. The relevant features in explaining the monsoon mechanism are as follows: Pink arrow: Southwest monsoon wind direction; green arrow: northeast monsoon wind direction. According to this theory, the monsoon is a result of the shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) under the influence of the vertical sun. The average temperature remains between 20°C and 35°C and the rainfall ranges between 2250 and 2500 mm. These are the most monitored components of the monsoon, and they determine the water availability in India for any given year. Westerly winds were exceptionally strong at the 850 hPa level, which helped the monsoon currents to penetrate into the ghats. This crowds city slums and aggravates the infrastructure and sustainability of city life. As a security measure in the prevailing situation of heavy rains, the India Meteorological Department had issued Red alert in the 9 districts in Northern and Central Kerala, orange alert in 3 districts of Central Kerala, and yellow alert in the 2 districts of southern Kerala. Since 1950s, the South Asian summer monsoon has been exhibiting large changes, especially in terms of droughts and floods. [38] Future changes in the monsoon will depend on a competition between land and ocean—on which is warming faster than the other. [29] In negative dipole years, the reverse happens, making Indonesia much warmer and rainier. [50], The onset of the monsoon increases fungal and bacterial activity. Kerala's State Disaster Management Authority, Kerala police along with the Indian Air Force, civilians, volunteers, fishermen from coastal Kerala are actively taking part in the rescue operations in flood-affected regions. Additionally, the arrival date and the departure date of both the southwest and northeast monsoon should be close to the mean dates. This causes the winds to blow over the Indian subcontinent toward the Indian Ocean in a northeasterly direction, causing the northeast monsoon. A good monsoon results in better agricultural yields, which brings down prices of essential food commodities and reduces imports, thus reducing food inflation overall. Take a journey to this historic destination with your loved ones , famously known for the song from Bombay movie. People love the Kerala experience during the monsoon. A recent assessment of the monsoonal changes indicate that the land warming has increased during 2002–2014, possibly reviving the strength of the monsoon circulation and rainfall. An early shift results in an early monsoon. Precipitation then occurs on the windward side of the highlands because of adiabatic cooling and condensation of the moist rising air. [12] In India monsoons create an entire season in which the winds reverse completely. Monsoon season in Kerala is a unique experience. Powodzie w Kerali – klęska żywiołowa powodzi, która nawiedziła Keralę, stan w południowo-zachodnich Indiach, w sierpniu 2018 roku. Monsoon hit the Kerala coast today after being delayed by a week commencing the four-month rainfall season in the country. [30] Walker noticed that the quantity of rainfall in the Indian subcontinent was often negligible in years of high pressure over Darwin (and low pressure over Tahiti). [16], One of the most commonly used words to describe the erratic nature of the monsoon is "vagaries", used in newspapers,[17] magazines,[18] books,[19] web portals[20] to insurance plans,[21] and India's budget discussions. Fourth, they are a major factor in the. Thus, Walker established the relationship between southern oscillation and quantities of monsoon rains in India. On 7 August 2020, due to heavy rainfall in the monsoon season, severe floods affected Kerala , India. The word monsoon (derived from the Arabic "mausim", meaning "seasonal reversal of winds"), although generally defined as a system of winds characterized by a seasonal reversal of direction,[6] lacks a consistent, detailed definition. It affects the Indian subcontinent, where it is one of the oldest and most anticipated weather phenomena and an economically important pattern every year from June through September, but it is only partly understood and notoriously difficult to predict. Places like Kerala and the Western Ghats get a large number of tourists, both local and foreigners, during the monsoon season. Author: Devanshy at Malayalam Wikipedia: Licensing . This makes the Arabian Sea (the western Indian Ocean near the African coast) much warmer and the eastern Indian Ocean around Indonesia colder and drier. The reverse shift takes place for the northeast monsoon winds, leading to a second, minor burst of rainfall over the eastern Indian Peninsula during the Northern Hemisphere winter months. This is known as sea breeze. The economic significance of the monsoon is aptly described by Pranab Mukherjee's remark that the monsoon is the "real finance minister of India". 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